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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2019
Volume 5 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 139-180

Online since Monday, September 30, 2019

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Disease-based toxicology on safety assessment strategy and application for herbal and traditional medicines p. 139
Jia-Bo Wang, Zhuo Shi, Xiao-He Xiao
The safety issue on herbal and traditional medicines (H&TM) is one of the most challenging problems and serious concern worldwide. With scientific endeavor and further exploration, we came to realize that there are great differences between H&TM and synthetic drugs in many aspects, such as medical theory, medication experience, compatibility, processing, toxicological characteristics, and safety evaluating requirements. In the current preclinical models for synthetic drugs, the safety assessment results of some conventional deemed “nontoxic” H&TM were not well consistent with clinical situations, which resulted in major difficulties to understand the mechanisms and guide the safe and rational uses of these H&TM. Thus, based on the traditional Chinese medicine toxicity theory called You Gu Wu Yun, this paper introduces a novel safety assessment strategy for H&TM, named as disease-based toxicology. It aims to cognize the relativity and susceptibility of the toxicity of H&TM, and then to enhance controllability in new drug development and clinical applications. It also provides a theoretical practice for the traditional Chinese medicine toxicity theory and a methodological promotion for the future development of the precision toxicology for H&TM.
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Discussions on toxic traditional chinese medicine and new perspectives p. 145
Hong Liu, Wei Zhou, Yue Gao
Along with the increase in the consumption of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the safety of TCM has dramatically attracted the attention and concern of the public. Here, we review previous studies, which focused mainly on the toxicity of toxic TCM and the interpretations for combination, to elaborate on advances and important issues existing in the safety evaluation of TCM, aiming to provide scientific advice for the clinical use. Moreover, we emphasize the importance of a safe evaluation system for TCM based on the material basis for toxicity, which integrates new toxicity testing strategy and is launched under the guidance of TCM theories in future researches.
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Taming the fire of nephrotoxic botanicals p. 151
Francesca Holden, Vanisha Amin, Dominic Kuek, Jeffrey B Kopp, Bruce M Hendry, Qi-He Xu
Criteria for diagnosing nephropathy and urothelial neoplasms induced by botanicals containing aristolochic acids (AAs) are well established. Highlights of recent research on AAs include mechanisms of AA intrarenal transport and metabolism and vigorous debate on whether AAs may also cause liver cancers. Many other botanicals may also cause renal injury, but a generalized framework for diagnosing botanical-induced kidney injury (BIKI) is lacking. Based on what we have learnt about the wide spectrum of phenotypes of BIKI attributed to AAs and a recently published standardized phenotypic framework of drug-induced kidney disease, we propose that BIKI may be categorized into six phenotypes (acute kidney injury, tubular dysfunction, glomerular disorders, nephrolithiasis, chronic kidney disease, and neoplasms) and four mechanistic types (A, predictable; B, idiosyncratic; C, chronic; and D, delayed). We call for international cooperation assembling a task force to develop, refine, and regularly appraise an online BIKI database, documenting botanical use, phenotypes, mechanisms, and levels of evidence. Once established, such a database may be linked with electronic patient records and pharmacovigilance channels to generate alerts, guide clinical decision-making, direct future research, and support evidence-based regulation of herbal medicines and education of healthcare professionals and the public. Finally, to prevent BIKI, we propose that a proactive approach integrating the triad of botanicals, users, and stakeholders will be needed.
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Advances in the safety evaluation of mineral medicines - Cinnabar and Realgar p. 164
Jing-Zhuo Tian, Ai-Hua Liang, Xiao-Xin Zhu, Yong Zhao, Yan Yi, Chun-Ying Li, Jia-Yin Han
Mineral medicines have a long history in the treatment of diseases. Among these, cinnabar and realgar are the most commonly used. This review discusses the differences between cinnabar and realgar and other mercurials and arsenicals. In addition, it explores the toxicity studies carried out on cinnabar and realgar, which include acute and chronic toxicity, neurotoxicological effects, special toxicity, disposition and accumulation, and the relative mechanism of toxicity. Cinnabar and realgar are seldom used alone but rather in combination with herbs or animal medicines. Thus, in this article, we have also included a study of the effect of toxicity reduction and efficacy enhancement after cinnabar and realgar were combined with other Chinese medicinal materials. This review provides the theoretical evidence for their clinical application, suggesting that the dosage and treatment period using cinnabar and realgar should be rigidly controlled and emphasis should be placed on the drug safety of special populations.
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Screening and identifying hepatotoxic components in Polygoni multiflori radix and Polygoni multiflori radix praeparata p. 173
Guang-Ping Zhang, Hai-Jing Zhang, Teng-Fei Chen, Hong-Ping Hou, Ping Su, Yun-Hang Gao, Yi-Fei Yang, Zu-Guang Ye
Objective: In this study, the hepatotoxic components of Polygoni multiflori Radix and Polygoni multiflori Radix Praeparata (known as Heshouwu [HSW] and Zhiheshouwu [ZHSW] in China, respectively) were screened, isolated, and identified. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of HSW and ZHSW were separated into 80 fractions according to their polarity in the preparation liquid phase. Chang liver cell line was used to screen the toxic components of HSW and ZHSW in vitro. The obtained toxic mixture was further collected, isolated, and identified to confirm the hepatotoxic compounds of HSW and ZHSW. Results: The identifid hepatotoxic compounds include 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, emodin, physcion-8-O-β-d-glucoside, physcion, and citreorosein, the fist two among them were the main components of HSW and ZHSW. After processing of HSW, the contents of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside and emodin in ZHSW were signifiantly decreased. Conclusions: The traditional processing with herb has signifiant effects on the components, especially the toxic components, in the extract of HSW and is an effective method to reduce its toxicity.
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Erratum: Comparison of Granules for Prescription and Classical Decoctions by High-performance Thin-layer Chromatography-fingerprint Analysis p. 180

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