|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 163-170
The Potential effects and use of chinese herbal medicine pine pollen (Pinus pollen): A bibliometric analysis of pharmacological and clinical studies
Shi-Bing Liang1, Ning Liang2, Fan-Long Bu3, Bao-Yong Lai4, Ya-Peng Zhang3, Hui-Juan Cao3, Yu-Tong Fei3, Nicola Robinson5, Jian-Ping Liu6
1 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing; College of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Taiyuan, China
2 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; cInstitute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China
3 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
4 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine; The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China
5 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UK
6 Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing; Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
|Date of Submission||03-Oct-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||30-Dec-2019|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Mar-2020|
Prof. Jian-Ping Liu
Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, 11 Bei San Huan Dong Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The objectives of this study are to conduct a comprehensive literature search and bibliometric analysis to identify the breadth and volume of pharmacological and clinical studies on pine pollen (Pinus pollen) and to identify the potential effects and the use of pine pollen. Three Chinese electronic databases and two English electronic databases were searched for pharmacological and clinical studies on pine pollen. Data were extracted and analyzed and included publication year, authors, study type, pharmacological research topics or clinical diseases/conditions, usage and type of preparation, authors' conclusions, and adverse effects. Of 239 publications identified, 180 were pharmacological studies, 37 were clinical trials, and 22 were reviews. Numbers of publications increased particularly from 2004 onward. The top 10 most frequent topics in pharmacological studies were immune regulation, antisenility, antioxidation, liver protection, inhibiting prostate hyperplasia, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, lowering blood glucose, lowering blood lipids, antifatigue, and improving intestinal function. The top 10 most frequent clinical diseases treated or where pine pollen was used as an adjuvant were bedsores, diaper dermatitis, hyperlipidemia, oral mucositis, eczema, hyperplasia of prostate, hypertension, prostatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and radiodermatitis. Eight trials reported no adverse events associated with pine pollen, one reported mild gastrointestinal reactions, but symptoms disappeared without special management. There have been an increasing number of publications on pine pollen during the past 20 years. Pharmacological studies have shown many potential benefits, and clinical studies have indicated some positive effects when it is either used as a single herb or as an adjuvant to treat disease. Its use as a topical agent, especially for skin diseases, was notable.
Keywords: Bibliometric analysis, Chinese herbal medicine, pine pollen, Pinus pollen, skin disease
|How to cite this article:|
Liang SB, Liang N, Bu FL, Lai BY, Zhang YP, Cao HJ, Fei YT, Robinson N, Liu JP. The Potential effects and use of chinese herbal medicine pine pollen (Pinus pollen): A bibliometric analysis of pharmacological and clinical studies. World J Tradit Chin Med 2020;6:163-70
|How to cite this URL:|
Liang SB, Liang N, Bu FL, Lai BY, Zhang YP, Cao HJ, Fei YT, Robinson N, Liu JP. The Potential effects and use of chinese herbal medicine pine pollen (Pinus pollen): A bibliometric analysis of pharmacological and clinical studies. World J Tradit Chin Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 26];6:163-70. Available from: https://www.wjtcm.net/text.asp?2020/6/2/163/281625
| Introduction|| |
Pine pollen (Pinus pollen) is a Chinese herbal medicine, also known as “Songhuafen” or “Songhuang,” being first recorded in the Tang Dynasty's Xin Xiu Ben Cao; it has been used in medicinal products and as a healthy food for thousands of years. Pine pollen is a dry, fine, bright, or light yellow color powder. It is mainly derived from Pinus massoniana Lamb., from Pinus tabuliformis Carriere, or from other plants of the same species. Pine pollens have a reputation of being a “natural micronutrient storeroom” and are rich in many kinds of body-demanding amino acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, and flavonoids.,Shen Nong's Herbal Classic recorded that this herb could increase urination, promote blood circulation, and disperse cold or hot evil in the heart and abdomen, and if administered over a long time, it could “lighten the body,” replenish qi, and prolong life span. Shizhen Li, an outstanding traditional Chinese medicine practitioner in the Ming Dynasty, recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica that pine pollen has the characteristics of sweet in flavor, warm in property, and nontoxic; it can nourish the heart and lung, replenish qi, disperse wind, and stop bleeding. Some pharmacological studies have reported that pine pollen has various functions such as regulating immunity, protecting the liver,, antitumor, antioxidation, anti-inflammatory,, antiaging,, antifatigue, lowering blood lipids, and lowering blood glucose.
This work aimed to conduct a comprehensive literature search and bibliometric analysis to identify the breadth and volume of pharmacological and clinical studies on pine pollen and to identify its use and potential effects.
| Methods|| |
The literature was systematically searched and analyzed using a bibliometric approach. This approach does not involve a research protocol requiring approval by an institutional review board.
Bibliometric analysis is a quantitative method used to analyze the literature and reveal overall issues, directions, and potential advantages of the topic from various aspects and perspectives. The data can be utilized to inform a pilot study for a randomized controlled trial (RCT).
Sources and search strategies
Five databases were searched including PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang Database, from their inception to October 2018. To identify relevant publications, only “Pine Pollen,” “Song Hua,” and “Song Huang” were used as search terms and without applying any other search restrictions. NoteExpress 220.127.116.1132 software (Beijing Ai Qin Hai Le Tech Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) was employed to manage the retrieved literature. Two authors (SBL and NL) independently screened and retrieved the literature based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. If there was any uncertainty or discrepancy, a third author (JPL) adjudicated.
Inclusion criteria were pharmacological or clinical studies on pine pollen with no restriction on the study type and the studies which were designed to investigate the function or effect of pine pollen. Only Chinese or English language articles were included due to resource limitations.
Two authors (SBL and NL) developed a structured data extraction form, and the following data were extracted: (1) publication information, including study ID, first author of the article, year of publication, study design, and language; (2) pharmacological research topics investigated based on Pharmacology (8th ed.) or diseases investigated according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) (http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en); (3) usage and preparations of pine pollen; (4) conclusions, classified as effective, ineffective, or unclear. “Effective” was defined as whether the study achieved its objective and statistically favored pine pollen; “ineffective” – The study did not achieve its objective or was not significant for pine pollen; “unclear” – The author did not provide a clear conclusion; (5) adverse events or adverse effects in clinical studies.
Five authors (SBL, NL, FLB, BYL, and YPZ) performed data extraction. All were trained in the standard and skills of data extraction. Extracted data were verified by SBL. Any discrepancies were discussed with a third author.
Data were managed using Microsoft Excel 2010 (14.0.6024.1000). Counts, percentages, and frequencies were used as indicators, and each indicator was analyzed and described.
| Results|| |
General description of included studies
[Figure 1] gives the flowchart of the literature searches and study selection. A total of 3540 articles were identified, and initial screening excluded 3301 papers for various reasons. Finally, 239 publications were included in this bibliometric analysis. Of these, 96.23% (n = 230) were published in Chinese and 3.77% (n = 9) were in English. Of the 239 publications, 180 (75.31%) were pharmacological studies, followed by 37 (15.48%) clinical studies and 22 (9.21%) reviews.
Year of publication
[Figure 2] shows the trends in the publication by year. Very few publications on pine pollen were found before 2003. The earliest clinical study literature identified was published in 1966 and was related to pine pollen used for infant diaper dermatitis. Between 2004 and 2008, the number of published articles on the effects of pine pollen showed a significant growth. Between 2008 and 2016, the number of publications was variable, but the overall trend was relatively stable and the number of publications tended to increase each year, with a maximum of 22 publications in 2010. The trend appeared to decline in 2017–2018, but note that this did not cover a full year of publications.
Key authors and author group
According to Price's law,, key author's definition refers to the author who publishes the number N of articles (N = 0.749[nmax]1/2, where “nmax” is the number of papers published by the most productive author in a subject area) or more papers in a subject area. If all key authors have published a total of 50% or more of the total number of papers in this subject area, they constitute the “key author group” for the subject area. The key author group can play a guiding role in the subject area and constantly drive the research in that subject area to a new level.
In this bibliometric analysis, we counted the first authors of all the included articles and their respective number of publications about pine pollen and its effects. After calculation, the authors who published two or more papers were designated the key authors in this subject area. The results of this study showed that there were 31 key authors publishing a total of 79 articles, accounting for 33.05% (79/239) of all the papers included. The percentage is far from the requirements of Price's key author group. Therefore, there was no key author group in the field of pine pollen research.
Analysis of all 180 pharmacological studies appeared to show that pine pollen had a positive effect. Based on Pharmacology (8th ed) edited by pharmacologist Baofeng Yang, the number of articles on pharmacology was counted. A total of 20 research topics were addressed. The results showed that the literature on pine pollen and the regulation of immunity was the most commonly mentioned (36/180, 20.00%), followed by the literature on antiaging (25/180, 13.89%). The top 10 frequent topics on the use of pine pollen in the published literature from different pharmacological studies are shown in [Table 1].
|Table 1: The top 10 most frequent research topics being studied on pine pollen' pharmacology|
Click here to view
The 37 clinical studies included were all published in Chinese and included 15 RCTs, 14 case series, six controlled clinical trials (CCTs), and two case reports. [Table 2] provides data on the characteristics of included 37 trials.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
All clinical studies showed positive effects from pine pollen used alone or as adjuvant therapy. Four RCTs,,,, three CCTs,,, and one case series  (7/37, 18.92%) reported no adverse events attributed to pine pollen during treatment. One RCT, which combined pine pollen with metformin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, reported that the adverse events in the pine pollen group were mild gastrointestinal reactions (e.g., bloating, diarrhea, and loss of appetite), but symptoms disappeared without special intervention. No adverse events were reported by any other studies.
Based on ICD-10 (http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en), the clinical studies tested a total of 17 diseases. The results showed that the studies on the use of pine pollen, either alone or as adjuvant therapy, were most common for bedsores (6/37, 16.22%), followed by diaper dermatitis (5/37, 13.51%). The top 10 indications based on the number of published clinical studies on different diseases are shown in [Table 3].
|Table 3: The top 10 most frequent diseases being treated with pine pollen alone or as an adjuvant therapy|
Click here to view
Usage and preparations of pine pollen in clinical studies
Of the 37 clinical studies, 21 studies (21/37, 56.76%) reported pine pollen was used alone, while the remaining studies (16/37, 43.24%) reported pine pollen used in combination with other therapies including conventional medications, herbal medications, and other therapies.
More than half of clinical studies (22/37, 59.46%) reported pine pollen used as a topical agent, while other studies (21/37, 40.54%) reported oral use of pine pollen. It is worth noting that the topical use of pine pollen to treat skin problems was the most common application, e.g., bedsores, diaper dermatitis, and eczema.
| Discussion|| |
The developing trend in research topics can be reported by analyzing the statistics of the number of documents and their temporal changes. The results of this study suggest that the number of published articles on the effects of pine pollen is generally on the rise. This suggests that the research interest on the effects of pine pollen is increasing.
The key author group can play a guiding role in the subject area and drive the research in the subject area to a new level by creating interest to attract other researchers. Their research is authoritative and instructive. The establishment of a key author group not only means the stability of a research team but also means the maturity of a research field. The lack of stability of the research team indicates that the choice of research topics is random and discrete, and it is impossible to form a unified goal.,, The results of this study showed that there were 36 key authors working on the effects of pine pollen, but they were insufficient to qualify as a Price's key author group. This suggests that the current research on the effects of pine pollen is not yet mature and does not reflect a stable research field, suggesting the lack of research personnel in the field. Therefore, the establishment of research teams in this subject area could be accelerated.
The pharmacological studies suggested that pine pollen had multiple functions, such as immune regulation, antiaging, antioxidation, liver protection, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, inhibiting prostate hyperplasia, antifatigue, lowering blood glucose, lowering blood lipids, and improving intestinal function. However, the quality of the included pharmacological studies was not evaluated. Therefore, the credibility of the currently available evidence needs to be further confirmed.
According to the statistics on the clinical studies analyzed, pine pollen was used alone (as a monotherapy) or in combination with other interventions (as an adjuvant therapy) for a wide range of diseases (e.g., bedsores, diaper dermatitis, hyperlipidemia, oral mucositis, eczema, hyperplasia of prostate, hypertension, prostatitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and radiodermatitis). More than half of clinical studies have reported that pine pollen was used as a topical agent for skin diseases, suggesting that pine pollen may have great potential in the treatment of skin diseases. Among all the included clinical studies on pine pollen, the potential beneficial effects of pine pollen were demonstrated. For clinical studies that reported adverse events, no events were related to pine pollen. However, the number of clinical trials with high levels of evidence (RCTs) is small, which may suggest that the firm evidence regarding the effects and safety of pine pollen could not be concluded.
Although experimental research is the key to achieving further development in clinical practice, the clinical study is the best way to test the value of basic experimental research. Whether pine pollen is truly effective and safe in its clinical application must be confirmed by clinical studies. To demonstrate its effects and safety, more high-quality clinical trials may be needed.
Significance of this study
As a Chinese herbal medicine, pine pollen has a long history of application in China, and its resources are very rich. The results of this study can not only provide a certain reference for the future pharmacological research of pine pollen but also provide ideas for its clinical application. In particular, the analysis of previous clinical studies about pine pollen found that more than half of clinical studies have reported that pine pollen was used as a topical agent for skin diseases, suggesting that pine pollen may have great potential for the treatment of skin diseases.
Strengths and limitations
As a quantitative statistical analysis method of analyzing the literature, bibliometric analysis is based on the amount of the literature. This can reveal the overall layout, development, direction, and disciplines and potential advantages of the subject from many aspects and perspectives. This method has been widely used in various disciplines. This bibliometric study conducted a multifaceted and multilevel analysis of the research of pine pollen for the first time, revealing the research hotspots and future directions to determine its benefit.
The language and database restriction for literature searching is a potential limitation. Due to resource constraints, other databases such as AMED and Web of Science were not searched; therefore, some publications may have been missed. Limiting publication language to Chinese and English may have omitted publications in other languages such as Korean and Japanese.
| Conclusion|| |
There have been an increasing number of publications on pine pollen during the past 20 years. Pharmacological studies have shown many potential benefits, and clinical studies have indicated some positive effects when either used as a single herb or as an adjuvant to treat disease. Its use as a topical agent, especially for skin diseases, was notable.
We thank Chun-Li Lu, a postgraduate student from the Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, for her help to improve on the writing of this manuscript.
Financial support and sponsorship
This work is supported by the fund from Beijing University of Chinese Medicine for the Project on Research and Development of Evidence-Based Medicine of Clinical Scientific Research Capacity and International Development in TCM (No. 2016-ZXFZJJ-011; No.1000061020008). JPL was partially supported by the NCCIH grant (AT001293 with Sub Award No. 020468C). NR is funded by Overseas Expertise Project, Ministry of Education of China (MS20180009).
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Mao GX, Zheng LD, Cao YB, Chen ZM, Lv YD, Wang YZ, et al
. Antiaging effect of pine pollen in human diploid fibroblasts and in a mouse model induced by D-galactose. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012;2012:750963.
He XY, Sun XY, Yu ZY. Effective components and pharmacological function of pine pollen. J Northeast For Univ 2007;35:78-80.
Mao YQ. Review of nutrient composition and health care function of pine pollen. Chin Food Nutr 2008;3:50-2.
Wei K, Sun ZH, Tan XL, Wang H, Wang XJ, Zhu R. Study on the immune enhancement effect of Taishan pine pollen polysaccharide on mice. China Agric Sci 2010;43:3645-52.
Jin XY, Cong T, Zhao L, Li RS, Zhao P. Protective effects of pine pollen water extract on hepatocyte injury induced by carbon tetrachloride. Beijing Med J 2014;36:1040-43.
Jin X, Cong T, Zhao L, Ma L, Li R, Zhao P, et al
. The protective effects of Masson pine pollen aqueous extract on CCl4-induced oxidative damage of human hepatic cells. Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8:17773-80.
Li WW, Chen CF, Li Y, Zhu YJ. Preliminary study on anti-tumor effect of ethanol extract of pine pollen. Chin J Pharm Sci 2011;27:199-201.
Dong SZ, Pei J, Liu W, Zhang WN, Wan DG. Correlation analysis between antioxidant activity and main components of pine pollen. Chin Med Clin 2012;3:5-7.
Lee KH, Kim AJ, Choi EM. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of pine pollen extract in vitro
. Phytother Res 2009;23:41-8.
Zhao LX, Lu Y. Study on anti-aging of pine pollen in mice. J Hubei Coll Tradit Chinese Med 2004;6:8-9.
Wu JJ, Huang PH, Zhu L, Lin FL. Study on the anti-fatigue effect of the total flavonoids of Pinus massoniana
pollen in mice. Mod Food Technol 2010;26:815-7.
Fan BL, Liu LG. Study on the effect of broken pine pollen on blood lipid and its mechanism in rats. Occup Health 2005;6:809-11.
Chen JL. Study on the hypoglycemic effect of chrome-rich pine pollen on diabetic rats. World Elemental Med 2012;1:22-5.
Yang BF. Pharmacology. 8th
ed. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House; 2013.
Hong QH. Pine pollen treatment of infantile hip dermatitis. Intermediate Med J 1966;7:463.
Wang CD. Introduction to Bibliometrics. Guilin: Guangxi Normal University Press; 1997. p. 162-4, 200-1.
Price DJ. Little Science, Big Science. New York: Columbia University Press; 1963.
Ba M, Yin LJ, Wu HM, Lu CH, Feng Y. Nursing observation of external application of pine pollen in the treatment of bedsores in patients with cerebral hemorrhage. Pract Clin Nurs 2016;1:82-.
Li L, An N, Wu DY. The effect of longzhu ointment combined with pine pollen on the treatment of stage II and III bedsores. Zhejiang Clin Med 2013;17:968-9.
Zhang LL, Zhang JL, Xu CB. Clinical observation of silver sulfadiazine and pine pollen in the treatment of stage III bedsores. Chin J Integrated Tradit Western Med 1997;10:631-2.
Cai YQ. Application effect of pine pollen in infant diaper dermatitis. World Latest Med Inf digest Electron Ed 2014;14:229.
Chen XJ, Zhang GJ. Application effect of pine pollen on neonatal skin care. J Guiyang Coll Tradit Chin Med 2013;35:60-2.
Ouyang HY, Ma Q, Li Y. Effects of pine pollen on neonatal eczema. Health Must-Read Next Month 2013;8:403.
Huang J, Wang SG, Hu SB, Yao L, Yang SY. Application of evidence-based medicine in verifying the blood lipid lowering effect of Pinus massoniana
pollen in antibang capsules. Anhui Agric Sci 2013;41:6218-9,58.
Wang XL, Qian J. Clinical observation of chrome-rich pine pollen in the treatment of hypertension. World Elemental Med 2009;2:62-4.
Fang ZH, Wu Q, Niu YF, Shu YQ, Ding L, Guam YX, et al
. Efficacy and safety of chrome-bearing pine pollen combined with metformin in the treatment of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Tradit Chin Med Pharm 2014;26:41-4.
Fang ZH, Wang XL, Chen JL, Ling ZX. Clinical study of chrome-bearing pine pollen capsules in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Tradit Chin Med Clin Med 2011;23:684-5.
Gong JY, Li WZ. Clinical observation on 206 cases of senile prostatic hyperplasia treated by traditional Chinese and western medicine. Chin Foreign Health 2012;32:434-5.
Lu L, Gui LL, Wang FM. Observation on the effect of sesame oil and pine pollen in the treatment of radiation-induced oral ulcer. J Tradit Chin Med 2014;29:336.
Liu JH. Clinical study on 188 cases of recurrent oral ulcers treated with pine pollen. Hebei Tradit Chin Med 2013;35:901-3.
Gu XY, Xie HQ, Yao L. The effect of oxygen boasting combined with pine pollen and honey on radiation oral ulcers in patients with head and neck cancer. Chin J Mod Nurs 2012;18:3066-68.
Liao JE, Zhai YQ. Observation on the effect of homemade pine pollen cream on radiation-induced skin damage in breast cancer patients. Int J Nurs 2013;1:210-1.
Du MH, Wan JW, Zhang JP, Wang YY, Gao H. Experimental study on hypolipidemic function of pine pollen supercritical carbon dioxide extract. Chin J Mod Med 2008;18:3171-3,6.
Fan BL, Wang HM, Song Y, Tian H, Li XL. Observation of the effect of broken pine pollen on blood lipids in people with hyperlipidemia. Occup Health 2006;22:2012-14.
Hu GC, Zhu JP. Pine pollen for the treatment of 54 cases of essential hypertension. J Integr Tradit Chin West Med 2007;21:2996-7.
Zhang JP, Liu DL, Shi S. The efficacy of pine pollen in preventing adverse drug reactions caused by chemotherapy in patients with malignant tumors. Clin Res Tradit Chin Med 2018;10:122-3.
Wen PJ, Peng L, Wang SL, Lu J, Gao L. Analysis of human food safety and laxative function of pine pollen. J Nurs Train 2016;37:330-3.
Yang JY. Baby wipes combined with pine pollen to prevent perianal skin injury after incontinence in the elderly. J Nurs Train 2012;27:169-70.
Jin JM, Zheng HF. Study on the treatment of diaper dermatitis with pine pollen and talc powder. Chin J External Med 2000;5:51.
Zhu CB. Pine pollen application in the treatment of 87 cases of infant diaper dermatitis. Chin Rural Med 1989;8:21.
Hong QH. Pine pollen in the treatment of infant diaper dermatitis. Chin J Med 1966;7:463.
Jiao GX. Nursing experience of 32 cases of pressure ulcer treated with pine pollen external application. Chin J Med Writ 2008;4:495-6.
Zhou XP. Pine pollen treatment for 30 cases of bedsores. Chin J Med Writ 2003;10:2136-37.
Liu DL. Clinical observation of terazosin combined with pine pollen in the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Shanxi Med J 2014;43:2320-21.
Wang FC. The experience of Bazhengsan addition and subtraction of pine pollen in the treatment of prostate diseases. Asia Pacific Tradit Med 2006;4:55-6.
Bai SL. Clinical experience of Mongolian medicine Saren Garidi and pine pollen in the treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. Chin J Natl Folk Med 2010;19:10.
Huang YY. Pine pollen treatment of 32 cases of hyperlipidemia. Anhui J Tradit Chin Med 1998;2:82.
Liu BH, Liu L, Li W. Forty-eight cases of external treatment of eczema with pine pollen. J Tradit Chin Med 2008;17:55.
An YX, Wang XY. Clinical study on the anti-aging effect of selenium-enriched pollen and physiotherapy towel. The 4th
China aging and anti-aging conference proceedings. Shandong Univ Tradit Chin Med 2013. p. 184-6.
Zhang X, Zhang DM, Wu D, Sun YH. Observation and nursing of pine pollen combined with ultraviolet local irradiation for subcutaneous edema of cirrhosis. Chin J Pract Nurs 2009;30:18.
Xiao HR. Clinical observation of 100 cases of chronic superficial ulcer treated with pine pollen. Jiangxi Med 1982;6:62.
Zhang P, Wang PQ, Guo HY. Observation and Nursing of Radiation-Related Aloe Vera and Refined Pine Pollen for Radiation-Induced Skin Ulcer. TheFirst 'Chinese Nursing Journal' Paper Writing Knowledge Lecture and Seminar Collection; 2001. p. 169-70.
Guo WW, Dai JY, Ling WH. One case of pine pollen for the treatment of second degree bedsores in patients with fracture. Gen Nurs 2010;1:50.
Zhang TH. Pine pollen for topical treatment of chickenpox. J Jiangxi Coll Tradit Chin Med 1997;1:24.
Gao JK. Discussion on the application of bibliometrics in scientific evaluation. Libr Inf Sci 2005;2:14-7.
Dong L, Guo SJ. Analysis of the authors of the 15-year academic papers published in the journal of Chinese family planning journal. Chin J Fam Plan 2007;6:334-40.
Chen PJ, Zhai LX, Qiu HZ. Meta-analysis of the research papers on communication between doctors and patients in China. Med Philos 2016;21:44-6.
Jiang HB, Zheng WL, Lin LT, Chen Y, Zhang B, Xiao LT. Bibliometric analysis of the empirical study on mental health of the elderly in China. J Nanjing Univ Tradit Chin Med Soc Sci Ed 2016;17:49-52.
Fan DM. On the importance of basic medical research on clinical work. Chin J Int Med 2006;7:531-2.
Yu YW, Xia XD, Zhi GY, Zhi GY, Ge L, He JM, et al
. Analysis of the development trend of rice research at home and abroad based on literature. China Agric Sci 2011;44:4129-41.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]