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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2020
Volume 6 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 363-514

Online since Wednesday, December 16, 2020

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The effect of hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axes in a kidney-yang deficiency syndrome model Highly accessed article p. 363
Agra Darmawati Ayu, Wen Pan, Zou-Qin Huang, Ling Zhao
Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome (KYDS) is a diagnostic pattern in the traditional Chinese medicine. Studies have shown that KYDS is related to the functional disorder of hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-target gland axes. The standard procedure used to mimic KYDS is the injection of a high dose of exogenous glucocorticoid (hydrocortisone and corticosterone). Such a model showed symptoms such as exhaustion, body twists, cold limbs, lying crowded together, decreased rectal temperature, sexual dysfunction, decreased reaction speed, reduced spontaneous activity, hair loss, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Moreover, the model manifested an imbalance in mutual control among the hormones of the pituitary-target gland axes, including adrenocorticotrophic hormone, CORT, CRH, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, T, E2, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17-OHCS.
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Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome-associated diarrhea: A protocol for the systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials Highly accessed article p. 370
Bai-Lin Chen, Ming-Zhu Zhang, Zi-Wei Huang, Hong-Rui Zhang, Chang Xu, Jing Li, Zhen-Wei Liu, Feng Jiang, Xun Li, Nicola Robinson, Jian-Ping Liu
Diarrhea can occur at an early or advanced stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as a usual symptom in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While it is usually not fatal, it can influence patients' quality of life seriously. It has shown to be efficacious and improves people's immune status to a certain extent to treat HIV/AIDS-related diarrhea on the basis of syndrome differentiation and treatment or Chinese herbs plus conventional treatment. Therefore, it may have a good application potential. Here, we outline a protocol for the systematic review of this health-care intervention, with the aim to evaluate the beneficial effects and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for patients who suffer from HIV/AIDS-associated diarrhea. Randomized controlled trials that compare Chinese herbs with placebo or other effective treatments will be searched and included, in spite of publication status or language. The primary outcomes include diarrhea frequency and fecal character. The databases we will search as follows: China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed), Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed and the CENTRAL in Cochrane Library. Two authors will respectively conduct the screening of trials, data extraction, and use the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess the methodological quality. We will analyze the data and perform a meta-analysis if possible. We intend to identify potential therapeutic modalities that may be of benefit to inform clinical practice by supplying existing evidence of the helpful effects and safety of TCM to treat patients suffering from HIV/AIDS-associated diarrhea.
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Exosome is an important novel way of acupuncture information transmission p. 377
Ning-Cen Li, Ming-Yue Li, Zhong-Xi Lu, Mu-Yang Li, Xue-Mao Zhuo, Yong Chen, Ting-Ting Wang, Li-Ying Xing, Mei-Juan Wang, Kai Shan, Ze-Lin Chen, Calista Hui-Min Lim, Bo Chen, Yi Guo
As a physical stimulation of the body surface, the process of transmitting acupuncture information from acupoints to target organs through meridians and collaterals is complex, and network regulation is the most basic mode of acupuncture. Exosomes are membrane vesicles formed by various types of cells and secreted to the extracellular matrix through a series of regulation. We speculate that exosomes and their carriers, as important carriers of communication among neurons, endocrine cells, and immune cells, may play an important role in the process of acupuncture information transmission. Exosome in the acupoint area is an important interactive form of transformation from physical information to chemical information. Circulating exosome is an important means of delivery for acupuncture to play an important role in the network regulation. The structure and information molecules of exosomes are the important material bases for acupuncture effect. Through experimental research, it was found that acupuncture can regulate the release of exosome and may have a certain relationship with acupuncture effect. Therefore, exosome may play an important role in the process of acupuncture information transmission, which is an important new way of acupuncture information transmission.
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Neuroendocrine-immune regulating mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of acupuncture p. 384
Zhi-Fang Xu, Shou-Hai Hong, Shen-Jun Wang, Xue Zhao, Yang-Yang Liu, Sha-Sha Ding, Yuan Xu, Kuo Zhang, Nan-Nan Yu, Zhong-Xi Lu, Fu-Ming Yang, Yi-Nan Gong, Qin-Qin He, Kun Yu, Yi-Ping Zhang, Bao-Min Dou, Lin Yao, Ya-Wen Yan, Tao Yang, Yan-Fang Zhang, Bao-Hu Liu, Yong-Ming Guo, Hsuah-Nee-Connie Wong, Yi Guo
Pain and inflammatory diseases are important clinical indications of acupuncture, which have been widely accepted in the international community. Previous studies have been focusing on rapid analgesia of acupuncture through the regulation of nervous system, but few studies on the inflammation regulatory mechanisms in which acupuncture inhibits the peripheral sensitization-induced pain. Based on studies concerning acupoint mechanisms of acupuncture actions and related researches on acupuncture regulating neuroendocrine and immune systems, we put forward the scientific hypothesis that acupuncture regulates neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) network and key response media therein, so as to achieve anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in target organs. We have established a platform for acupuncture at ST36 to alleviate inflammatory pain in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Based on the complex network analysis of multi-dimensional data from multi-time point and multi-site detection of NEI common signaling molecules, we have clarified the regulatory effects of acupuncture on NEI network and corresponding downstream immune network. Results indicated that monocytes/macrophages are the key targeting cells of acupuncture regulation, and acupuncture may display the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by regulating polarization of T cells in lymph nodes and polarization of M1/M2 macrophages in inflamed joints/paws. In addition, we have spotted a key molecule for acupuncture analgesia, CXCL1, as well as clarified the novel central analgesic mechanism of acupuncture mediated by CXCL1/CXCR2 desensitization. Thereby, we have provided novel evidence of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of acupuncture through regulating NEI network and several key substances, highlighting a systemic research paradigm for investigating mechanisms of acupuncture actions.
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Medicinal plant of Bletilla striata: A review of its chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and quality control p. 393
Sai Jiang, Meng-Yun Wang, Han-Wen Yuan, Qian Xie, Yang Liu, Bo-Shu Li, Yu-Qing Jian, Chang-Xiao Liu, Hua-Yong Lou, Atta-Ur-Rahman , Wei-Dong Pan, Wei Wang
Bletilla striata belongs to the family Orchidaceae, and it is mainly distributed in East Asia. The tubers of B. striata have been utilized in Traditional Chinese Medicine for various ailments, such as hematemesis, tuberculosis, malignant ulcers, hemorrhoids, traumatic bleeding, and chapped skin. Phytochemical investigation on B. striata has resulted in the identification of 192 monomeric compounds, including bibenzyls, phenanthrene derivatives, triterpenoids and its saponins, steroids and its saponins, malic acid derivatives, and anthocyanins. Moreover, B. striata polysaccharide is another typical chemical constituent of this plant. Pharmacology studies have shown that the plant possesses wound healing, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidative, and antiviral activities. This review aims to provide the latest and comprehensive information on chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and quality control of B. striata and to identify future research needs.
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The fruits of Xanthium sibiricum Patr: A review on phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and toxicity p. 408
Hai Jiang, Xue-jiao Wang, Liu Yang, Jia-Xu Zhang, A-Jiao Hou, Wen-Jing Man, Song Wang, Bing-You Yang, Kelvin Chan, Qiu-Hong Wang, Hai-Xue Kuang
In recent years, drug development and research have gradually shifted from chemical synthesis to biopharmaceutical and natural drugs. Natural medicines, such as traditional Chinese medicine, have been among the first studied because of their long medicinal history, simplicity, and the relatively low cost of research. Among them, Xanthii Fructus (XF) is famous for the treatment of sinusitis. In this article, the achievements of research on XF from 1953 to 2020 are systematically reviewed, focusing on the aspects of chemical constituents, pharmacological effects, clinical applications, toxicity and side effects, and processing methods. To date, there have been significant advances in both the phytochemistry and pharmacology of XF. Some traditional uses have been validated and clarified in modern pharmacological studies. However, its mechanism of action in the treatment of allergic diseases has not been satisfactorily explained. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are required to rationally develop new drugs and to elucidate the therapeutic potential of XF. A comprehensive evaluation of XF and an understanding of network pharmacology are also needed.
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Research progress on processing and processing methods in Salvia miltiorrhiza production areas p. 423
Qin-Rong Liu, Li-Na Zhao, Yi-Shuo Wang, Yong-Guang Han, Zhen-Ling Zhang, Yu-Quan Wu
Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the 40 most commonly used traditional Chinese medicinal materials in clinics. It is effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, relieving pain through the meridian, clearing the heart and removing irritations, and cooling blood and eliminating blemishes. Each main production area has developed a unique production method and processing technology, in accordance with local conditions. The processed products included in Chinese Pharmacopoeia are purified and wine-fried S. miltiorrhiza. In addition, the Chinese province's standards include the vinegar-fried and wine-fried types. S. miltiorrhiza is produced in more areas and is more extensively processed, with large variations in specifications. The challenge in establishing a uniform quality standard affects the clinical application of decoction pieces. This review has explored the books of the past dynasties, summarized the relevant literature published in the past three decades, discussed the processing methods of S. miltiorrhiza, and provided a basis for further research on the processing method of the original sample. In particular, we integrate fresh cut processing as the starting point for in-depth research, discuss the processing technology specifications, and formulate quality product standards.
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Ginsenoside 3β-O-Glc-DM (C3DM) enhances the antitumor activity of Taxol on Lewis lung cancer by targeting the interleukin-6/Jak2/STAT3 and interleukin-6/AKT signaling pathways p. 432
Mei Tang, Lu-Lu Huang, Qian-Qian Du, Chen Yan, An-Di Gu, Jin-Ling Yang, Yan Li
Objective: Nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is an aggressive, highly chemoresistant disease. Taxol is an effective chemotherapeutic drug widely used for the treatment of NSCLC. However, the clinical use of Taxol is limited due to the occurrence of adverse side effects under high therapeutic doses. Therefore, it is desirable to explore combination therapy to reduce the dose of chemotherapeutic drugs and achieve excellent outcomes. A biosynthetic ginsenoside, 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-dammar-24-ene-3β, 20S-diol (3β-O-Glc-DM, C3DM) is obtained from microbial fermentation by metabolic engineering. Based on previous study findings, we aimed to explore the mechanism of combination therapy with C3DM and Taxol and its increasing antitumor effect on Lewis lung cancer (LLC) in this study. Materials and Methods: A thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate cell viability; the apoptotic effect was studied using cell apoptosis assay. The Lewis tumor xenograft experiment was performed to determine the effects of C3DM combined with Taxol on tumor growth in vivo, and western blotting was performed to analyze protein expressions. Results: C3DM effectively inhibited the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Moreover, C3DM increased the antiproliferative activity of Taxol and significantly enhanced cell apoptosis induced by Taxol in Lewis lung cancer cells. C3DM alone also suppressed Lewis tumor growth and enhanced the antitumor activity of Taxol in vivo. Western blot analysis revealed that the effects of the antiproliferation and apoptosis induction of C3DM treatment alone or in combination with Taxol on Lewis lung cancer were mediated by inhibiting the interleukin-6 (IL-6)/Jak2/STAT3 and IL-6/AKT signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results showed that C3DM has the potential to be used in combination therapy with Taxol against NSCLC.
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Risk factors associated with recurrence within 90 days of ischemic stroke onset in chinese medicine hospital: A national cross-sectional study in China p. 441
Yang Gao, Yan-Ming Xie, Ye-Feng Cai, Xiao-Ming Shen, De-Xi Zhao, Ying-Zhen Xie, Yin Zhang, Gui-Qian Wang, Xu Wei, Rui-Li Wei
Objective: The short- and long-term risk factors for stroke recurrence may be different. This study is aimed to determine the risk factors for recurrence within 90 days in patients with ischemic stroke in China. Method: This was cross-sectional registry-based study in Chinese medicine hospitals from eight provinces and ten cities in China between November 3, 2016 and May 28, 2018. Two thousand one hundred and twenty patients with ischemic stroke aged between 35 and 80 years. Stroke recurrence was defined as an outcome indicator. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging was used as a diagnostic tool for stroke recurrence. Patients' age, sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), education level, medical history, family history, smoking, and drinking were recorded. Routine laboratory examinations were performed. Associated factors were investigated by calculating the odds ratio (OR) using logistic regression modeling. Results: In all, 2120 patients were included in the study, 712 (33.6%) of whom were women and 1408 (66.4%) were men, with a mean age of 62.84 ± 9.35 years. Eighty-two patients experienced stroke recurrence within 90 days, and the accumulative recurrence rates of stroke were 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0%–4.7%). The binary logistic analysis showed that previous history of one (OR = 8.113; 95% CI, 4.497–14.637), two (OR = 8.848; 95% CI, 4.025–9.449), or ≥3 ischemic strokes (OR = 24.599; 95% CI, 9.307–65.018), and BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (OR = 2.842; 95% CI, 1.000–8.075) were independently associated with stroke recurrence within 90 days. Conclusions: The accumulative recurrence rate of ischemic stroke was 3.9% within 90 days. Number of previous history of ischemic stroke and BMI <18.5 kg/m2 were independent risk factors for stroke recurrence. Medical history and solar terms of ischemic stroke were not found to be associated with stroke recurrence within 90 days. Effective secondary prevention for patients with a previous history of ischemic stroke is urgently needed to address this stroke recurrence burden.
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Electroacupuncture alleviates neuropathic pain by modulating Th2 infiltration and inhibiting microglial activation in the spinal cord of rats with spared nerve injury p. 448
Bin Liu, Wei Long, Ru-Rong Wang
Objective: The objective is to explore the potential mechanisms mediating the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) for neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish a spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. The intensity of neuropathic pain was measured by assessing the mechanical withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency. Immunofluorescent analysis and western blotting were performed to evaluate the activation of microglia and Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling in the L4-6 spinal cord of SD rats. The infiltration of Th2 and expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the L4-6 spine were analyzed by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Behavioral test results demonstrated that SNI-induced hyperalgesia was significantly ameliorated by EA stimulation at “Zusanli” (ST36) and “Yanglingquan” (GB34) points. In addition, EA therapy significantly suppressed microglia activation and phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 in the L4-6 spine of rats with SNI. Moreover, EA promoted the infiltration of Th2 and secretion of IL-10 in the L4-6 spine of rats with SNI. Conclusions: The study findings indicate that EA stimulation mediated the infiltration of Th2 in the spinal cord of rats with SNI. In addition, EA inhibited microglial activation in the L4-6 spine of rats with SNI.
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Successful treatment of coronavirus disease with integrated traditional chinese and western medicine: A case report p. 456
Ya-Li Guo, Bo Wang, Jin-Lian Cheng, Yu-Guang Wang
Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new outbreak infectious disease, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Nearly 80,000 people have got infected in China in just 2 months. Up to now, there still has no specific effective treatment for this disease. While integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine has definite curative effect, could significantly reduce the disease mortality and shorten the course of treatment. Case Report: Here we report a 31-year-old female case of COVID-19 in a family cluster in Beijing. She reported low fever, cough with a little white sputum, fatigue, watery diarrhea, anorexia on admission. The COVID-19 in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) belonged to plagues caused by dampness toxin. The patient was treated with TCM from dampness combined with antiviral drug abidol. After four visits, the patient was significantly improved with symptoms disappearing, chest-computed tomography dissipating, viral nucleic acid turning negative. She discharged and donated 200 ml convalescent plasma after 19 days hospitalization. Conclusion: The present case demonstrated that integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine could treat COVID-19 effectively. However, clinical randomized controlled trials are warranted to verify the precise clinical efficacy.
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Mitochondria are main targets of time/dose-dependent oxidative damage-based hepatotoxicity caused by rhizoma dioscoreae bulbiferae in mice p. 461
Hong-Ping Hou, Guang-Ping Zhang, Han Li, Teng-Fei Chen, Yun-Hang Gao, Ling Song, Zhong-Xiu Zhang, Zu-Guang Ye
Background: Rhizoma Dioscoreae bulbiferae could cause liver damage, which limited its application in the clinic. Aims and Objectives: To explore the mechanism of hepatotoxicity of Rhizoma Dioscoreae bulbiferae in mice. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the water extraction of Rhizoma Dioscoreae bulbiferae (W.E.R) was administrated via intragastrical with Low (19.6 g/kg), Middle (28.0 g/kg), and High (40.0 g/kg) dose in mice. At each time point 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days, the body weight, liver coefficient, indexes of liver function alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), various biochemical biomarkers of liver tissue and mitochondria were detected and analyzed. Results: We found that W.E.R could decrease the body weight, increase the liver coefficient and the expression levels of indexes of liver function in mice. Next, we investigated that W.E.R could increase the expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), decrease the expression levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and improve the enzyme activities of total superoxide dismutase (SOD). Third, we found that W. E. R could increase the enzyme activities of manganese-superoxide dismutase, decrease the enzyme activities of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na + -K + -ATPase) and calcium-magnesium adenosine triphosphatase (Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase). Finally, we analyzed that there were significant negative correlations between body weight, expression level of ATP, activity of Na + -K + -ATPase, activity of Ca 2+ -Mg 2+ -ATPase and time, dose. There were significant positive correlations between liver coefficient, ALP, ALT, AST, expression levels of ROS, MDA and time, dose. Conclusion: All the results above indicated that W.E.R could cause the hepatotoxicity based on the oxidative damage in mice, which and mitochondria might be the main targets.
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Geographical origin and level identification of frankincense based on hyperspectral image p. 469
Yu-Xiang Zhang, Zhong-Chen Gao, Ye-Xin Liu, Wei Li
Background: As the demand for traditional Chinese medicinal materials increases in China and even the world, there is an urgent need for an effective and simple identification technology to identify the origin and quality of the latter and ensure the safety of clinical medication. Mineral element analysis and isotope finger-printing are the two commonly used techniques in traditional origin identification. Both of these techniques require the use of stoichiometric methods in the identification process. Although they have high accuracy and sensitivity, they are expensive and inefficient. In addition, near-infrared spectroscopy is a fast, nondestructive, and widely used identification technique developed in recent years, but its identification results are susceptible to samples' states and environmental conditions, and its sensitivity is low. Hyperspectral imaging combines the advantages of imaging technology and optical technology, which can simultaneously access the image information and spectral information which reflect the external characteristics, internal physical structure, and chemical composition of the samples. Hyperspectral imaging is widely applied to agricultural product inspection, but research into its application in origin and quality identification of TCM materials is rare. Methods: In this study, the algorithm framework discriminative marginalized least squares regression (DMLSR) was used for feature extraction of frankincense hyperspectral data. The DMLSR with intraclass compactness graph and manifold regularization can efficiently learn the projective samples with higher separability and less redundant information than the original samples. Then, the discriminative collaborative representation with Tikhonov regularization (DCRT) was applied for classifying the geographical origin and level of frankincense. DCRT introduces the discriminant regularization term and incorporates SID, which is more sensitive to the spectrum as the measurement method and is more suitable for the frankincense spectral data compared with SVM. Results: For the origin classification task, samples of all levels from each origin were, respectively, selected for three-way classification. We used 10-fold cross-validation to select a model parameter in the experiment. When obtaining the optimal parameters, we randomly selected the training set and testing set, where the training set accounts for 70% and the training set for 30%. After repeating this random process 10 times, we obtained the final average classification accuracy, which is higher than 90%, and the standard deviation fluctuation is usually small. For the level classification task, samples of each level from three origins were separately selected for multiclassification. We randomly selected the training set and testing set from each origin. The level classification results of the three origins are good on D4350 data, and the classification accuracy of each level is basically above 80%. Conclusion: Experiments and analysis show that our algorithm framework has excellent classification performance, which is stable in origin classification and has potential for generalization. In addition, the experiments show that in our algorithm framework, different classification tasks need to combine different data sources to achieve better classification and recognition, as the origin classification task uses frankincense's D3000 data, and level classification task uses frankincense's D4350 data.
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Network pharmacology-based study of chinese herbal qixiong formula in treating oligoasthenospermia p. 481
Feng Zhao, Sheng-Jing Liu, Qing-He Gao, Ji-Wei Zhang, Guan-Chao Du, Fu Wang, Jun Guo
Objective: The objective is to study the network pharmacology of Qixiong formula (QXF) and explore the mechanism of QXF in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia. Materials and Methods: Using Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP), a Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of Traditional Chinese Medicine (BATMAN-traditional Chinese medicine), and an encyclopaedia of traditional Chinese medicine (ETCM) databases as well as data from relevant studies, the effective components and targets of QXF were obtained. Genes associated with oligospermia were screened using GeneCards, OMIM, DisGeNet, DrugBank, and GAD databases. The intersection target was obtained by mapping the target to the gene, and the protein interaction network was created using the STRING database to screen the core target of QXF in the treatment of oligospermia. The intersection target was enriched using gene ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis with the DAVID database. The network of the disease drug target pathway was drawn using Cytoscape software. Results: Overall, 536 active components of QXF and 40 core targets for the treatment of oligoasthenozoospermia were obtained. The analysis of GO and KEGG showed that QXF is mainly involved in oxidative stress, cell motility, nutritional response, and other biological processes. Through the regulation of FOXO, p53, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, mammalian target of rapamycin, Foxo, Wnt, and other signaling pathways, QXF played a role in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia. Conclusion: QXF has multi-component, multi-target, and multi-channel characteristics, providing a new way to study the mechanism of QXF in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia.
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Theoretical characteristics of tibetan medicine p. 490
Jing-Nan Liu, Tawni Tidwell, Hui-Hui Zhao, Qing-Jia Ren, Meng Mao, Hui-Chao Wu, Xiao-Han Pang, Wei Chen, Meng-Ling Hu, Zi-Juan Zhang, Da Man, Xiao-Qiao Ren, Li-Li Wu, Tong-Hua Liu
Similar to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Tibetan medicine emphasizes the concepts of holism, balance, and etiology. With the individual as the nexus of macro- and micro-ecologies, multi-layered systemic etiologies, inform therapeutic pharmacologies for cultivating network effects to induce the healing response. Tibetan medicine approaches health and healing through perspectives that frame the balance achieved in the internal world as inextricably linked to balance in the external world, and vice versa, that includes expressions of mind and consciousness. The external world refers to the broader context of the natural world as comprised of matter and energy expressed through five elemental dynamics (Chi.Tu, Shui, Huo, Fengand Kong;Tib. Sa, Chu, Mé, rLungand Kha) describing principles of solidity, cohesion, heat, motility, and interactive space, or earth, water, fire, wind and space, respectively. The internal world refers to the local context of the physical mass and biochemical cascades of energy transfers comprising the human body, its behaviors and functions, including cognitive factors, as also expressed through the five elemental dynamics. The external and internal systems merge as a unified whole, where the five elemental dynamics characterize materio-energetic exchanges between the broader and local ecologies of individual body and natural world, as well as social relations, mental affects, and contextual conditions. The interdependence, opposition, restriction and transformation among three physiological systems known as nyépa (Three Causal Factors) - rLung, Tripaand Béken (pronounced lõõng, t ī pa, baekan, respectively)-are used to discuss the balance of the whole. The causal origins of disease are explained through disturbances to these systems as a combination of afflictive mental factors, physiologic imbalances, and disturbing conditions from the natural world, such as environmental toxins, pathogens, and exposures. Of the three causal origins, afflictive mental factors are particularly emphasized as important etiological conditioning influences. Initiation and progression of disease is divided into four stages: baseline stage, initiating stage, developing stage, and maturing stage. Each stage has an explicit therapeutic paradigm for treatment, recovery, and health maintenance demonstrating the distinct theoretical framework for disease treatment in Tibetan medicine as specific to individual body, particular disease etiology, and constitutionally-directed unique compound metabolism pharmacodynamically.
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A study on the mechanism of bruceine D in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer H1299 cells p. 500
Xiao-Yun Shen, Chao-Yue Su, Yan-Yan Yan, Ling-Ling Zhang, Qiao-Ru Guo, Hu-Biao Chene, Shuhela Zhumabieke, Yelxat Danabek, Jia-Jun Li, Yun Liu, Bolat Makabel, Jian-Ye Zhang
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is considered one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Despite the availability of drugs for the treatment of NSCLC, the need for the development of novel agents with high efficiency and fewer adverse effects remains unmet. The natural compound bruceine D (BD) is widely recognized for its notable anti-inflammatory, antiparasitic, and hypoglycemic activities. However, it is unclear whether BD can be used as a novel agent for NSCLC treatment. Materials and Methods: MTT and colony formation assays were used to assess the antiproliferative effect of BD on NSCLC cells. Wound healing and transwell assays were performed to determine the effect of BD on the migration and invasion of H1299 cells, respectively. Western blotting assay was used to detect the expression levels of proteins. Results: We demonstrated that BD significantly inhibited the proliferation of H1299, A549, and H226 cells with respective IC50 values of 6.06 ± 0.52, 7.15 ± 0.90, and 7.21 ± 0.75 μM. In addition, BD suppressed colony formation of H1299 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Following treatment with BD, the migration and invasive capabilities of H1299 cells were significantly inhibited in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the results of Western blotting demonstrated that BD treatment resulted in the upregulation of the protein expression of E-cadherin and downregulation of the expression of N-cadherin, twist, snail, integrin αv, integrin β4, matrix metalloproteinase-7, and β-catenin proteins. Conclusion: BD inhibits proliferation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells; therefore, BD may be considered for its potential in adjuvant therapy for NSCLC.
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Effect of bushen qingre yuyin decoction on salivary secretion, spleen index, submandibular gland index, submandibular gland histomorphology, and aqp5 expression in the nonobese diabetic mouse model p. 508
Wan-Ru Wang, Huan-Yu Liu, Zhi-Xiong Ren, Lu Chen, Sai Liu, Lian-Cun Shi, Xiao-Ping Yan, Feng Mi
Objective: The objective of this study was to observe the effect of Bushen Qingre Yuyin Decoction on the spleen index, submandibular gland index, salivary secretion, submandibular gland morphology, and aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression levels in the submandibular gland. Materials and Methods: Fifty 8-week-old nonobese diabetic (NOD) female mice were randomly divided into the following five groups: model; hydroxychloroquine; and high-, medium-, and low-dose Bushen Qingre Yuyin Decoction prescription. The blank group consisted of ten 8-week-old Balb/C rats. Bushen Yuyin Qingre Decoction was administered by gavage at 20, 40, and 80 g/kg in the low-, medium-, and high-dose groups, respectively. The hydroxychloroquine group was administered hydroxychloroquine at a dose of 80 mg/kg by gavage. The normal and model groups were administered the same amount of saline. After the different administrations, the amount of salivary secretion in the mice was regularly observed. After 12 weeks, the mice were sacrificed, and their submandibular gland tissues were excised, stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and pathologically scored. AQP5 expression levels in the tissues were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: The spleen index of mice in the high-dose group was higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05), and the submandibular gland index of the hydroxychloroquine group and all the Bushen Qingre Yuyin Decoction prescription groups was higher than that in the model group (P < 0.05). After 6 weeks, the salivary volume of the hydroxychloroquine group and all the Bushen Qingre Yuyin Decoction prescription groups was significantly higher than that of the model group (P < 0.05); the amount of lymphocyte infiltration in mice among each administration group was significantly reduced (P < 0.05); and the AQP5 expression levels in the submandibular glands of mice had significantly increased in the hydroxychloroquine and high-dose groups (P < 0.05), with the high-dose group showing the best effect. Conclusion: Bushen Qingre Yuyin Decoction can effectively increase the spleen and submandibular gland indexes of NOD mice, increase the amount of salivary secretion, reduce lymphocyte infiltration in submandibular gland tissue, and significantly increase AQP5 expression levels, which may be positively correlated with the administered dose.
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